Gemstone families

“We are family, get up ev’rybody and sing.”

Sister Sledge, We Are Family (1979)

The table below is a useful aid for obtaining information about gemstones, such as chemical composition, group and family membership, and their various colors, all factors that are closely interrelated. It is surprising how useful it can be to consider a gemstone in relation to its closest relatives, particularly for complex families such as Garnet.

The following table groups gemstones based on their chemical composition (e.g. silicates, oxides and hydroxides) and their mineralogical family (e.g. Corundum, Beryl and Feldspar).

Borates
Howlite---
Sinhalite---
Carbon
DiamondBlue Diamond--
Chamapagne Diamond--
Yellow Diamond--
Black Diamond--
Pink Diamond--
Red Diamond--
Green Diamond--
Carbonates
Azurmalachite---
Aragonite---
Azurite---
Calcite---
Cerussite---
Crysocolla---
Dolomite---
Malachite---
Rodocrosite---
Smithsonite---
Halides
Fluorite---
Igneous Rock
ObsidianSnowflake Obsidian--
Organics
Amber---
Jet---
PearlAkoya Pearl--
Freshwater Pearl--
Mabe Pearl--
Mother of pearl--
South Sea Pearl--
Tahitian Pearl--
Shell---
Oxides and hydroxides
Cassiterite---
ChrysoberylAlexandriteCat’s Eye Alexandrite-
Cat's Eye Chrysoberyl---
Vanadium Chrysoberyl---
CorundumRubyTanzanian Ruby-
Star Ruby-
SapphireBlue SapphireCeylon Sapphire
Kanchanaburi Sapphire
Midnight Blue Sapphire
Fancy SapphireBlack Star Sapphire
Color Change Sapphire
Green Sapphire
Orange Sapphire
Padparadscha Color Sapphire
Padparadscha Sapphire
Pink Sapphire
Purple Sapphire
Star Sapphire
Sunset Sapphire
White Sapphire
Yellow Sapphire
Cuprite---
DiasproZultaniteCat's Eye Zultanite-
Hematite---
Rutile---
SpinelBlack Spinel--
Blue Spinel--
Fancy Spinel--
Gahnite--
Noble Red Spinel--
Pink Spinel--
Purple Spinel--
Phosphates
Ambligonite---
Apatite---
Brazilianite---
Lazulite---
Turquoise---
Silicates
Amazonite----
Andalusite----
Axinite----
BerylAquamarineAquamarine AAA--
-Cat's Eye Acquamarine--
Red BerylPezzottaite (not always considered a member of the beryl family)--
Emerald---
Goshenite---
Heliodor---
MorganiteBicolor Morganite--
Yellow Beryl---
Clinohumite----
Danburite----
DiopsideRussian Diopside (also known as Chrome Diopside)---
Star Diopside---
Dioptase----
Dumortierite----
EnstatiteBronzite---
Epidote----
Euclase----
FeldsparAndesine---
Labradorite---
MoonstoneRainbow Moonstone--
Ortoclase---
Spectrolite---
SunstoneStar Sunstone--
GarnetPyralspiteAlmandineMozambique Garnet-
PyropeMozambique Garnet (Pyrope and Almandine)-
Rhodolite (Pyrope and Almandine)-
SpessartiteMandarin Garnet-
Malaia Garnet (Spessartite and Pyrope)Color Change Garnet
Umbalite (Pyrope and Almandine with traces of Spessartite)-
UgranditeAndraditeDemantoid-
GrossulariteMail Garnet (Andradite and Grossularite)-
Merelani Mint Garnet-
Essonite-
Tsavorite-
Uvarovite--
Hauyne----
Hemimorfite----
Hypersthene----
Vesuvian----
Iolite----
JadeJadeite---
Nephrite---
Kornerupine----
Kyanite----
Lapis lazuli----
Lepidolite----
Mookite----
Natrolite----
OpalBlack Opal---
Blue Opal---
Blue Fire Opal---
Boulder Opale---
Fire Opal---
Green Opal---
Jelly Opal---
Matrix Opal---
Pink Opal---
Semi Black Opal---
White Opal---
Yellow Opal---
PectoliteLarimar---
Peridot----
Petalite----
Phenakite----
Prehnite----
QuartzAmethystBicolor Amethyst--
Rose de France Amethyst--
Ametrine---
Bicolor Quartz---
Blue Moon Quartz---
ChalcedonyAgate--
Aventurine--
Chrysoprase--
Fire Agate--
Heliotrope--
Diaspro--
Carnelian--
Onyx--
Sard--
Sardonyx--
CitrineBicolor Citrine--
Cognac Quartz---
Green Amethyst---
Lemon Citrine---
Olive Quartz---
Phantom Quartz---
Rainbow Quartz---
Pink Quartz---
Graffiti Quartz---
Smoky Quartz---
Tiger's Eye---
White Quartz---
Quartzite----
Rodonite----
ScapoliteCat's Eye Scapolite---
Serpentine----
SilimaniteCat's Eye Silimanite---
Star Silimanite---
Sodalite----
Sphene----
SpodumeneHiddenite---
Green Kunzite--
Yellow Kunzite--
White Kunzite--
Staurolite----
Sugilite----
Thomsonite----
TopazFlamingo Topaz---
Sky Blue Topaz---
Imperial Topaz---
Kiwi Topaz---
Cherry Topaz---
London Blue Topaz---
Mulberry Topaz---
Moonlight Topaz---
Ocean Topaz---
Mystic Topaz---
Neptune Topaz---
Swiss Blue Topaz---
Twilight Topaz---
Grape Topaz---
White Topaz---
TourmalineElbaiteBicolor Tormaline--
Black Tourmaline--
Blue Green Tourmaline--
Cuprian Tourmaline--
Fancy Tourmaline--
Green Tourmaline--
Indicolite--
Paraíba Tourmaline--
Pink Tourmaline--
Rubellite--
DraviteChrome Tourmaline--
Unakite----
ZirconZircon Ratanakiri---
ZoisiteTanzaniteAAA Tanzanite--
Sulphates & Chromates
Anglesite---
Baryte---
Celestine---
Gypsum---
Sulphides
Marcasite---
Pyrite---
Sphalerite---
Tectites
Moldavite---
Tungstates
Scheelite---